Engineering Services Examination(ESE/IES)
What is ESE/ IES ?
Engineering Services Examination commonly known as ESE is conducted annually by UPSC to recruit engineers of four domains i.e. Civil, Mechanical, Electrical and Electronics & Telecommunications for the Techno –Managerial posts.
These candidates after the final selection are posted in various Ministries and Departments of GOI such as Railways, Telecom, Border Roads, CPWD, CWC, CPES, NHAI, Naval Armaments, IDSE, MES, Ordnance Factories etc., however, they can move to any cadre, organisation, agency, department, ministry or PSU of the Government of India. All these final selected candidates are designated as class-1 officers.
ESE written exam consists of both objective and conventional type questions hence theory, conceptual knowledge and problem solving techniques are equally important.
Good writing skills, excellent presentation, subjective theory, explanations, derivations, diagrams and equations will fetch you good marks in conventional or subjective paper.
Be aware of exam pattern like how many technical & non-technical questions are asked, negative marks, weightage, exam duration and marks per question. Always make a habit of referring previous year question papers.
Prefer Reference books for derivations, equations, conceptual thinking, theory etc.
Short Cut Techniques: Use short techniques for numerical solving instead of traditional approach.
Reading news paper, watching morning bulletin, surfing websites will help the candidates to prepare and score better in the General ability paper carrying 200 marks. Do not neglect General Ability part as this section is scoring and also plays an important role in personal interview.
Practice previous year question papers and analyze the weak topics and concentrate more on those topics. Always try to solve the papers in given time to obtain an idea that how many questions you are able to solve in given time limits.
Intense knowledge of the subjects, strong basics, and clear concepts helps in better understanding of the subjects and prove to be instrumental in getting good scores.
Personal Interview: Sound technical knowledge, Positive attitude, Body language, Good communication skills, knowledge about current affairs plays an important role to clear personal interviews. Candidates should be prepared for the questions about their strengths and weaknesses.
A candidate must be either:
- (a) A citizen of India or
- (b) A subject of Nepal or A subject of Bhutan or
- (c) A Tibetan refugee who came over to Indian before the 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanently settling in India or
- (d) A person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka or East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire and Ethiopia or from Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India.
Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c) and (d) above shall be a person in whose favor a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.
(II) Age Limits:
- A candidate for this examination must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 30 years on the 1st January, of the exam year.
- The upper age-limit of 30 years will be relaxable up to 35 years in the case of Government servants of the following categories, if they are employed in a Department/Office under the control of any of the authorities mentioned in column 1 below and apply for admission to the examination for all or any of the Service(s)/Posts mentioned in column 2, for which they are otherwise eligible.
- The upper age-limit prescribed above will be further relaxable:
- Up to a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a scheduled caste or a scheduled tribe.
- Up to a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to OBC category.
- Up to a maximum of five years if a candidate had ordinarily been domiciled in the state of Jammu & Kashmir during the period from 1st January, 1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989.
- Upto a maximum of three years in the case of defence service personnel disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area, and released as a consequence thereof.
- Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen including Commissioned Officers and ECOs/SSCOs who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on 1st January, and have been released
- on completion of assignment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st January) otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency, or
- on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service or
- on invalidment;
- Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ECOs/SSCOs who have completed an initial period of assignment of five years of Military Services as on 1st January, and whose assignment has been extended beyond five years and in whose case the Ministry of Defence issues a certificate that they can apply for civil employment and they will be released on three months notice on selection from the date of receipt of offer of appointment.
- Upto a maximum of 10 years in the case of blind, deaf-mute and Orthopaedically handicapped persons.
- Minimum Educational Qualifications:
- Obtained a degree in Engineering from a university incorporated by an act of the central or state legislature in India or other educational institutions established by an act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as universities under section-3 of the university grants commission act, 1956 or
- Passed Section A and B of the Institution Examinations of the Institution of Engineers (India) or
- Obtained a degree/diploma in Engineering from such foreign University/College/Institution and under such conditions as may be recognised by the Government for the purpose from time to time or
- Passed Graduate Membership Examination of the Institute of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers (India) or
- Passed Associate Membership Examination Parts II and III/Sections A and B of the Aeronautical Society of India or
- Passed Graduate Membership Examination of the Institution of Electronics and Radio Engineers, London held after November 1959
Provided that a candidate for the post of Indian Naval Armament Service (Electronics Engineering Posts and Engineer Group ‘A’ in Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing/Monitoring Organization) may possess any of the above qualifications or the qualification mentioned below namely: M.Sc. degree or its equivalent with Wireless Communication, Electronics, Radio Physics or Radio Engineering as a special subject.
|Preliminary Examination||Paper – I||Objective||General Studies & Engineering Aptitude||2 hours||200 marks|
|Preliminary Examination||Paper – II||Objective||Engineering Discipline||3 hours||300 marks|
|Mains Examination||Paper – I||Conventional||Engineering Discipline – I||3 hours||300 marks|
|Mains Examination||Paper – II||Conventional||Engineering Discipline – II||3 hours||300 marks|
To clear the prelims stage it is necessary to get at least 15% of marks in each paper, i.e., 30 marks and 45 marks respectively. To be sure of being eligible for Mains stage, one must aim to score at least 50% in each paper or 250+ marks overall in Prelims; this may vary branch to branch.
The short listing ratio for Mains Examination is considerably higher depending on the vacancies and is generally around 1:12 i.e. 12 persons are shortlisted for 1 post.
The minimum cut off marks to clear the Mains stage is 20% in each paper, i.e., one need to score at least 60 marks in each of the papers to be eligible for Interview stage. To be sure of getting an interview call, one must aim and score at least 50% in each of the mains paper or 300+ marks overall, however this may vary branch to branch and year to year depending on difficulty level of the paper.
The calling ratio for personal Interview is generally 1:3 i.e. 3 candidates will be called for filling up 1 post.
Next stage is the interview, interview is total of 200 marks and a good candidate gets marks in the range of 100-120. For a guaranteed selection, one must aim to score 140+ in the interview.
Usually, top 10 rankers score around 60 to 65% of the total marks (1300 marks). Last candidate to be recommended scores around 55 to 58 % of the total marks.
BROAD CONTENTS OF THE GENERAL STUDIES AND ENGINEERING APTITUDE PAPER
( Stage-I, Paper-I).
General Studies and Engineering Aptitude
(Stage I – Paper I, Objective type, Common to all Candidates, 2 hours duration, 200 Marks maximum)
The questions from the following Topics will be set in Paper-I of Stage-I
- Current issues of national and international importance relating to social, economic and industrial development
- Engineering Aptitude covering Logical reasoning and Analytical ability
- Engineering Mathematics and Numerical Analysis
- General Principles of Design, Drawing, Importance of Safety
- Standards and Quality practices in production, construction, maintenance and services
- Basics of Energy and Environment : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, Climate Change, Environmental impact assessment
- Basics of Project Management
- Basics of Material Science and Engineering
- Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) based tools and their applications in Engineering such as networking, e-governance and technology based education.
- Ethics and values in Engineering profession
Note: The paper in General Studies and Engineering Aptitude will include Knowledge of relevant topics as may be expected from an engineering graduate, without special study. Questions from all the 10 topics mentioned above shall be set. Marks for each Topic may range from 5% to 15% of the total marks in the paper.
REVISED SYLLABI OF FOUR ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES, UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW DELHI,
ENGINEERING SERVICES EXAMINATION (ESE) SYLLABI
Branch/Discipline: Civil Engineering
(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)
PAPER – I
1. Building Materials:
Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash, Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification, properties and selection criteria;Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates and methods of mix design.
2. Solid Mechanics:
Elastic constants, Stress, plane stress, Strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of stress and strain, Elastic theories of failure, Principal Stresses, Bending, Shear and Torsion.
3. Structural Analysis:
Basics of strength of materials, Types of stresses and strains, Bending moments and shear force, concept of bending and shear stresses; Analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures; Trusses, beams, plane frames; Rolling loads, Influence Lines, Unit load method & other methods; Free and Forced vibrations of single degree and multi degree freedom system; Suspended Cables; Concepts and use of Computer Aided Design.
4. Design of Steel Structures:
Principles of Working Stress methods, Design of tension and compression members, Design of beams and beam column connections, built-up sections, Girders, Industrial roofs, Principles of Ultimate load design.
5. Design of Concrete and Masonry structures:
Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces; Design of beams, Slabs, Lintels, Foundations, Retaining walls, Tanks, Staircases; Principles of pre-stressed concrete design including materials and methods; Earthquake resistant design of structures; Design of Masonry Structure.
6. Construction Practice, Planning and Management:
Construction – Planning, Equipment, Site investigation and Management including Estimation with latest project management tools and network analysis for different Types of works; Analysis of Rates of various types of works; Tendering Process and Contract Management, Quality Control, Productivity, Operation Cost; Land acquisition; Labour safety and welfare.
PAPER – II
1. Flow of Fluids, Hydraulic Machines and Hydro Power:
(a) Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow: Fluid properties; Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; Fluid dynamics including flow kinematics and measurements; Flow net; Viscosity, Boundary layer and control, Drag, Lift, Principles in open channel flow, Flow controls. Hydraulic jump; Surges; Pipe networks.
(b) Hydraulic Machines and Hydro power – Various pumps, Air vessels, Hydraulic turbines – types, classifications & performance parameters; Power house – classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.
2. Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering:
Hydrological cycle, Ground water hydrology, Well hydrology and related data analysis; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Flood, drought and their management; Capacity of Reservoirs. Water Resources Engineering : Multipurpose uses of Water, River basins and their potential; Irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Resources – storages and their yields; Water logging, canal and drainage design, Gravity dams, falls, weirs, Energy dissipaters, barrage Distribution works, Cross drainage works and head-works and their design; Concepts in canal design, construction & maintenance; River training, measurement and analysis of rainfall.
3. Environmental Engineering:
(a) Water Supply Engineering: Sources, Estimation, quality standards and testing of water and their treatment; Rural, Institutional and industrial water supply; Physical, chemical and biological characteristics and sources of water, Pollutants in water and its effects, Estimation of water demand; Drinking water Standards, Water Treatment Plants, Water distribution networks.
(b) Waste Water Engineering: Planning & design of domestic waste water, sewage collection and disposal; Plumbing Systems. Components and layout of sewerage system; Planning & design of Domestic Waste-water disposal system; Sludge management including treatment, disposal and re-use of treated effluents; Industrial waste waters and Effluent Treatment Plants including institutional and industrial sewage management.
(c) Solid Waste Management: Sources & classification of solid wastes along with planning & design of its management system; Disposal system, Beneficial aspects of wastes and Utilization by Civil Engineers.
(d) Air, Noise pollution and Ecology: Concepts & general methodology.
4. Geo-technical Engineering and Foundation Engineering :
(a) Geo-technical Engineering : Soil exploration – planning & methods, Properties of soil, classification, various tests and inter-relationships; Permeability & Seepage, Compressibility, consolidation and Shearing resistance, Earth pressure theories and stress distribution in soil; Properties and uses of geo-synthetics.
(b) Foundation Engineering: Types of foundations & selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow & deep foundations; Slope stability analysis, Earthen embankments, Dams and Earth retaining structures: types, analysis and design, Principles of ground modifications.
5. Surveying and Geology:
(a) Surveying: Classification of surveys, various methodologies, instruments & analysis of measurement of distances, elevation and directions; Field astronomy, Global Positioning System; Map preparation; Photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts; Survey Layout for culverts, canals, bridges, road/railway alignment and buildings, Setting out of Curves.
(b) Geology : Basic knowledge of Engineering geology & its application in projects.
6. Transportation Engineering:
Highways – Planning & construction methodology, Alignment and geometric design; Traffic Surveys and Controls; Principles of Flexible and Rigid pavements design. Tunneling – Alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck, drainage, lighting and ventilation. Railways Systems – Terminology, Planning, designs and maintenance practices; track modernization. Harbours – Terminology, layouts and planning. Airports – Layout, planning & design.
Branch/Discipline: Mechanical Engineering
(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)
PAPER – I
1. Fluid Mechanics:
Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids, Manometry, Fluid Statics, Buoyancy, Equations of Motion, Bernoulli’s equation and applications, Viscous flow of incompressible fluids, Laminar and Turbulent flows, Flow through pipes and head losses in pipes.
2. Thermodynamics and Heat transfer:
Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substance; Zeroth, First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics; Entropy, Irreversibility and availability; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion: Rankine, Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles; ideal and real gases; compressibility factor; Gas mixtures. Modes of heat transfer, Steady and unsteady heat conduction, Thermal resistance, Fins, Free and forced convection, Correlations for convective heat transfer, Radiative heat transfer – Radiation heat transfer co-efficient; boiling and condensation, Heat exchanger performance analysis
3. IC Engines, Refrigeration and Air conditioning:
SI and CI Engines, Engine Systems and Components, Performance characteristics and testing of IC Engines; Fuels; Emissions and Emission Control. Vapour compression refrigeration, Refrigerants and Working cycles, Compressors, Condensers, Evaporators and Expansion devices, Other types of refrigeration systems like Vapour Absorption, Vapour jet, thermo electric and Vortex tube refrigeration. Psychometric properties and processes, Comfort chart, Comfort and industrial air conditioning, Load calculations and Heat pumps.
4. Turbo Machinery:
Reciprocating and Rotary pumps, Pelton wheel, Kaplan and Francis Turbines, velocity diagrams, Impulse and Reaction principles, Steam and Gas Turbines, Theory of Jet Propulsion – Pulse jet and Ram Jet Engines, Reciprocating and Rotary Compressors – Theory and Applications
5. Power Plant Engineering:
Rankine and Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat, Fuels and their properties, Flue gas analysis, Boilers, steam turbines and other power plant components like condensers, air ejectors, electrostatic precipitators and cooling towers – their theory and design, types and applications;
6. Renewable Sources of Energy:
Solar Radiation, Solar Thermal Energy collection – Flat Plate and focusing collectors their materials and performance. Solar Thermal Energy Storage, Applications – heating, cooling and Power Generation; Solar Photovoltaic Conversion; Harnessing of Wind Energy, Bio-mass and Tidal Energy – Methods and Applications, Working principles of Fuel Cells.
PAPER – II
7. Engineering Mechanics:
Analysis of System of Forces, Friction, Centroid and Centre of Gravity, Dynamics; Stresses and Strains-Compound Stresses and Strains, Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagrams, Theory of Bending Stresses- Slope and deflection-Torsion, Thin and thick Cylinders, Spheres.
8. Engineering Materials:
Basic Crystallography, Alloys and Phase diagrams, Heat Treatment, Ferrous and Non Ferrous Metals, Non metallic materials, Basics of Nano-materials, Mechanical Properties and Testing, Corrosion prevention and control
9. Mechanisms and Machines:
Types of Kinematics Pair, Mobility, Inversions, Kinematic Analysis, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Planar Mechanisms, CAMs with uniform acceleration and retardation, cycloidal motion, oscillating followers; Vibrations –Free and forced vibration of undamped and damped SDOF systems, Transmissibility Ratio, Vibration Isolation, Critical Speed of Shafts. Gears – Geometry of tooth profiles, Law of gearing, Involute profile, Interference, Helical, Spiral and Worm Gears, Gear Trains- Simple, compound and Epicyclic; Dynamic Analysis – Slider – crank mechanisms, turning moment computations, balancing of Revolving & Reciprocating masses, Gyroscopes –Effect of Gyroscopic couple on automobiles, ships and aircrafts, Governors.
10. Design of Machine Elements:
Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as riveted, welded and bolted joints. Shafts, Spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, Brakes and clutches, flywheels.
11. Manufacturing ,Industrial and Maintenance Engineering:
Metal casting-Metal forming, Metal Joining, Machining and machine tool operations, Limits, fits and tolerances, Metrology and inspection, computer Integrated manufacturing, FMS, Production planning and Control, Inventory control and operations research – CPM-PERT. Failure concepts and characteristics-Reliability, Failure analysis, Machine Vibration, Data acquisition, Fault Detection, Vibration Monitoring, Field Balancing of Rotors, Noise Monitoring, Wear and Debris Analysis, Signature Analysis, NDT Techniques in Condition Monitoring.
12. Mechatronics and Robotics:
Microprocessors and Microcontrollers: Architecture, programming, I/O, Computer interfacing, Programmable logic controller. Sensors and actuators, Piezoelectric accelerometer, Hall effect sensor, Optical Encoder, Resolver, Inductosyn, Pneumatic and Hydraulic actuators, stepper motor, Control Systems- Mathematical modeling of Physical systems, control signals, controllability and observability. Robotics, Robot Classification, Robot Specification, notation; Direct and Inverse Kinematics; Homogeneous Coordinates and Arm Equation of four Axis SCARA Robot
Branch/Discipline: Electrical Engineering
(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)
PAPER – I
1. Engineering Mathematics:
Matrix theory, Eigen values & Eigen vectors, system of linear equations, Numerical methods for solution of non-linear algebraic equations and differential equations, integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Line, Surface and Volume Integrals. Fourier series, linear, non-linear and partial differential equations, initial and boundary value problems, complex variables, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, probability and statistics fundamentals, Sampling theorem, random variables, Normal and Poisson distributions, correlation and regression analysis.
2. Electrical Materials:
Electrical Engineering Materials, crystal structures and defects, ceramic materials, insulating materials, magnetic materials – basics, properties and applications; ferrities, ferro-magnetic materials and components; basics of solid state physics, conductors; Photo-conductivity; Basics of Nano materials and Superconductors.
3. Electric Circuits and Fields:
Circuit elements, network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, transient response of DC and AC networks, Sinusoidal steady state analysis, basic filter concepts, two-port networks, three phase circuits, Magnetically coupled circuits, Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Ampere’s and Biot-Savart’s laws; inductance, dielectrics, capacitance; Maxwell’s equations.
4. Electrical and Electronic Measurements:
Principles of measurement, accuracy, precision and standards; Bridges and potentiometers; moving coil, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments, measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor, instrument transformers, digital voltmeters and multi-meters, phase, time and frequency measurement, Q-meters, oscilloscopes, potentiometric recorders, error analysis, Basics of sensors, Transducers, basics of data acquisition systems
5. Computer Fundamentals:
Number systems, Boolean algebra, arithmetic functions, Basic Architecture, Central Processing Unit, I/O and Memory Organisation; peripheral devices, data represenation and programming, basics of Operating system and networking, virtual memory, file systems; Elements of programming languages, typical examples.
6. Basic Electronics Engineering:
Basics of Semiconductor diodes and transistors and characteristics, Junction and field effect transistors (BJT, FET and MOSFETS), different types of transistor amplifiers, equivalent circuits and frequency response; oscillators and other circuits, feedback amplifiers.
PAPER – II
1. Analog and Digital Electronics:
Operational amplifiers – characteristics and applications, combinational and sequential logic circuits, multiplexers, multi-vibrators, sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, basics of filter circuits and applications, simple active filters; Microprocessor basics- interfaces and applications, basics of linear integrated circuits; Analog communication basics, Modulation and de-modulation, noise and bandwidth, transmitters and receivers, signal to noise ratio, digital communication basics, sampling, quantizing, coding, frequency and time domain multiplexing, power line carrier communication systems.
2. Systems and Signal Processing :
Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals, shifting and scaling operations, linear, time-invariant and causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals, sampling theorem, Fourier and Laplace transforms, Z transforms, Discrete Fourier transform, FFT, linear convolution, discrete cosine transform, FIR filter, IIR filter, bilinear transformation.
3. Control Systems:
Principles of feedback, transfer function, block diagrams and signal flow graphs, steady-state errors, transforms and their applications; Routh-hurwitz criterion, Nyquist techniques, Bode plots, root loci, lag, lead and lead-lag compensation, stability analysis, transient and frequency response analysis, state space model, state transition matrix, controllability and observability, linear state variable feedback, PID and industrial controllers.
4. Electrical Machines :
Single phase transformers, three phase transformers – connections, parallel operation, auto-transformer, energy conversion principles, DC machines – types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors, Induction motors – principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control, Synchronous machines – performance, regulation, parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications, servo and stepper motors.
5. Power Systems :
Basic power generation concepts, steam, gas and water turbines, transmission line models and performance, cable performance, insulation, corona and radio interference, power factor correction, symmetrical components, fault analysis, principles of protection systems, basics of solid state relays and digital protection; Circuit breakers, Radial and ring-main distribution systems, Matrix representation of power systems, load flow analysis, voltage control and economic operation, System stability concepts, Swing curves and equal area criterion. HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts, Concepts of power system dynamics, distributed generation, solar and wind power, smart grid concepts, environmental implications, fundamentals of power economics.
6. Power Electronics and Drives :
Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs – static characteristics and principles of operation, triggering circuits, phase control rectifiers, bridge converters – fully controlled and half controlled, principles of choppers and inverters, basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives, DC-DC switched mode converters, DC-AC switched mode converters, resonant converters, high frequency inductors and transformers, power supplies.
Branch/Discipline: Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering
PAPER – I
1. Basic Electronics Engineering:
Basics of semiconductors; Diode/Transistor basics and characteristics; Diodes for different uses; Junction & Field Effect Transistors (BJTs, JFETs, MOSFETs); Transistor amplifiers of different types, oscillators and other circuits; Basics of Integrated Circuits (ICs); Bipolar, MOS and CMOS ICs; Basics of linear ICs, operational amplifiers and their applications-linear/non-linear; Optical sources/detectors; Basics of Opto electronics and its applications.
2. Basic Electrical Engineering:
DC circuits-Ohm’s & Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, circuit theorems; Electro-magnetism, Faraday’s & Lenz’s laws, induced EMF and its uses; Single-phase AC circuits; Transformers, efficiency; Basics-DC machines, induction machines, and synchronous machines; Electrical power sources- basics: hydroelectric, thermal, nuclear, wind, solar; Basics of batteries and their uses.
3. Materials Science:
Electrical Engineering materials; Crystal structure & defects; Ceramic materials-structures, composites, processing and uses; Insulating laminates for electronics, structures, properties and uses; Magnetic materials, basics, classification, ferrites, ferro/para-magnetic materials and components; Nano materials-basics, preparation, purification, sintering, nano particles and uses; Nano-optical/magnetic/electronic materials and uses; Superconductivity, uses.
4. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation:
Principles of measurement, accuracy, precision and standards; Analog and Digital systems for measurement, measuring instruments for different applications; Static/dynamic characteristics of measurement systems, errors, statistical analysis and curve fitting; Measurement systems for non-electrical quantities; Basics of telemetry; Different types of transducers and displays; Data acquisition system basics.
5. Network Theory:
Network graphs & matrices; Wye-Delta transformation; Linear constant coefficient differential equations- time domain analysis of RLC circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transforms- frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; 2-port network parameters-driving point & transfer functions; State equations for networks; Steady state sinusoidal analysis.
6. Analog and Digital Circuits:
Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTS and FETs; Diode circuits for different uses; Biasing & stability of BJT & JFET amplifier circuits; Analysis/design of amplifier- single/multi-stage; Feedback& uses; Active filters, timers, multipliers, wave shaping, A/D-D/A converters; Boolean Algebra& uses; Logic gates, Digital IC families, Combinatorial/sequential circuits; Basics of multiplexers, counters/registers/ memories /microprocessors, design& applications.
PAPER – II
1. Analog and Digital Communication Systems:
Random signals, noise, probability theory, information theory; Analog versus digital communication & applications: Systems- AM, FM, transmitters/receivers, theory/practice/ standards, SNR comparison; Digital communication basics: Sampling, quantizing, coding, PCM, DPCM, multiplexing-audio/video; Digital modulation: ASK, FSK, PSK; Multiple access: TDMA, FDMA, CDMA; Optical communication: fibre optics, theory, practice/standards.
2. Control Systems:
Classification of signals and systems; Application of signal and system theory; System realization; Transforms& their applications; Signal flow graphs, Routh-Hurwitz criteria, root loci, Nyquist/Bode plots; Feedback systems-open &close loop types, stability analysis, steady state, transient and frequency response analysis; Design of control systems, compensators, elements of lead/lag compensation, PID and industrial controllers.
3. Computer Organization and Architecture:
Basic architecture, CPU, I/O organisation, memory organisation, peripheral devices, trends; Hardware /software issues; Data representation& Programming; Operating systems-basics, processes, characteristics, applications; Memory management, virtual memory, file systems, protection & security; Data bases, different types, characteristics and design; Transactions and concurrency control; Elements of programming languages, typical examples.
4. Electro Magnetics:
Elements of vector calculus, Maxwell’s equations-basic concepts; Gauss’, Stokes’ theorems; Wave propagation through different media; Transmission Lines-different types, basics, Smith’s chart, impedance matching/transformation, S-parameters, pulse excitation, uses; Waveguides-basics, rectangular types, modes, cut-off frequency, dispersion, dielectric types; Antennas-radiation pattern, monopoles/dipoles, gain, arrays-active/passive, theory, uses.
5. Advanced Electronics Topics:
VLSI technology: Processing, lithography, interconnects, packaging, testing; VLSI design: Principles, MUX/ROM/PLA-based design, Moore & Mealy circuit design; Pipeline concepts & functions; Design for testability, examples; DSP: Discrete time signals/systems, uses; Digital filters: FIR/IIR types, design, speech/audio/radar signal processing uses; Microprocessors & microcontrollers, basics, interrupts, DMA, instruction sets, interfacing; Controllers & uses; Embedded systems.
6. Advanced Communication Topics:
Communication networks: Principles /practices /technologies /uses /OSI model/security; Basic packet multiplexed streams/scheduling; Cellular networks, types, analysis, protocols (TCP/TCPIP); Microwave & satellite communication: Terrestrial/space type LOS systems, block schematics link calculations, system design; Communication satellites, orbits, characteristics, systems, uses; Fibre-optic communication systems, block schematics, link calculations, system design.
“Success doesn’t necessarily come from breakthrough Innovation, but from flawless Execution.”
Often I hear a concern among the students regarding “What should be our strategy to crack ESE/GATE exams?” To answer this question in the most simplified way, this article is my sincere effort to strategise things for aspirants, which will be fruitful for young friends.
There are two categories of ESE/GATE Aspirants :(1) Freshers , preparing first time for the competitive exams (Neophytes) (2) Repeaters , who have already given one or more attempts (Rank Improvers)
(I) Strategy for Neophytes:
If you are fresher and preparing first time then I would suggest you the following approach to be adopted-
- Define your aim and target the desired exam right from the beginning. You should examine closely the examination pattern, syllabus and the level of difficulty.
- The first step for amateurs should be, to go through previous years’ question papers of the aimed exam and identify what type of questions are asked, like whether it is theoretical (then what subjects/which topics are mostly asked) or derivations or numerical type.
- Keep one best reference book for each subject. You are not advised to read too many books for each subject; practically it is not possible in limited time frame.
The STUDY REGIME:
Make an overall plan of your career; define immediate and ultimate goals of your career, then make a roadmap to execute in most effective manner. Being an engineer you should understand the importance of planning and execution of the plan.
Overall plan may be further divided in three stages:
1. Six month /One year plan:
Divide months for different subjects and plan it so as to complete the entire syllabus in the left over time. In the current scenario of high cut-offs, do not go for selective study; instead cover the entire syllabus, because you never know “the topic left could be the topic of conquest.”
2. Subject-wise Plan/ Bi-weekly plan:
For each subject, study should be exam oriented, i.e. you should get acclimatize with the subject , so that you know which area is to be focussed like whether theory has to be focussed or numerical or solving previous years’s questions will suffice. Every subject requires different approach .For example in mathematics you may be required to focus on practicing problems where as in English altogether different approach, similarly in technical subjects the approach may differ from subject to subject.
If you are enrolled in any coaching institute; then concentrate and study well in coaching classroom, your class notes should be full and final and should be ready in classroom itself, with simultaneous marking of IMPORTANT concept /formulae and develop a habit of writing of NOTE points ,wherever required. If only self study is your style of preparing without coaching, then also notes making is advisable.
One point to be kept in mind is “Work for Yourself”; i.e. make notes for yourself, it should be self hand written notes, as this will increase your writing efficiency in terms of speed, accuracy and hand writing and also helps in memory retention.
3. Daily To-Do list /Daily plan:
This is basically for effective time management. Plan and freeze the study hours and abstain from using mobile phones, social media, what’s app etc during these hours. 10 to 15 minutes are sufficient to plan next day schedule, it will help in removing redundant activities of your schedule and you can make best use of your time for study. I would also suggest to pre plan your area /subject /topic of your study for next day, it would help in activating senses of your mind to stimulate for study which helps in better memory retention.
Solving previous years’ questions of GATE & ESE (at least of last 10-15 years) should be made contemporaneous with class notes. Do not postpone it for later, topic that is covered in class or studied on your own, finish the previous years’ questions on priority basis.
While solving questions, mark the questions which you were not able to solve. Refer the reference book for the clarity of concepts, and solve again. In front of the question write the Page Number and Name of the book referred and in the book referred underline or highlight the concept. This above methodology is to be followed for all workbook and other materials also. After a few months while doing revision you should re-attempt these marked questions only and no need to solve other questions.
Make a REVISION plan:
Make a habit of reading and revising simultaneously.
While studying a particular subject; devote 70-80% of self study time in developing concepts of new subject and rest 20-30% time should be religiously devoted for revision of already completed topics/subjects. And, towards months closer to exam, increase the revision time for proper retention of concepts till exam day.
While revising, make sure you do the following:
- Review of class notes.
- Revise underlined/ highlighted portion of text book.
- Then attempt only the marked questions once more.
- If time permits, then start with new set of questions.
Make Micro notes:
After finishing every subject make micro notes, which have only principal formulae/ diagrams/ concepts of at most importance, especially note down the area which you find difficult to remember. Then, once this is done, take a snapshot and store in your mobile gallery. These will be your Digital Micro Notes, which can be revised anywhere and everywhere, while travelling, gap between two classes, free time.
Flow like a river:
Be loquacious and discussion oriented with friends and seniors and keep on clearing your doubts, don’t allow to accumulate the doubts which may result in mental stress. Also interact with successful seniors and fellow mates to know about their path of success/strategy, it is synonymous with river water which when flows gets self purified.
Take tests in examination environment and make note of areas of difficulty and make a roadmap to improve these before the next test.
Stay away from incompetent and non-achievers. Don’t let their failure demoralise you in any sense.
Make holistic and balancing approach:
Cover entire syllabus but more time should be given to important areas. Identify important subjects and mark important topics within a subject. Scoring and low scoring areas should be segregated. Make a balance study plan for technical and non technical subjects. Mathematics and Reasoning Aptitude section is quite scoring in GATE exam.
(II) Strategy for Repeaters:
- Review your past performance and find the reasons for failure. Consider failure as next stepping step. In fact you have not failed your success is little postponed.
- Identify weak areas of each subject and start your preparation by first improving these areas.
- Focus more on solving different types of problems and that too from new source of material in each iteration.
- Plan your study to maintain regularity and self motivation; daily scheduling and subject wise scheduling is very important for a systematic preparation.
- Join some good test Series & Appear for tests with full preparation and take the test in examination environment and solve previous years’ questions of various exams. Solving previous years’ papers of GATE, ESE& CSE may be very useful.
- To maintain continuity and keeping up the self motivation, form groups of 3-4 friends and make schedule of group study once in a week to discuss complex questions and doubts.